A Political and Economic Dictionary of Western Europe by Claire Annesley

By Claire Annesley

A Political and monetary Dictionary of Western Europe is a useful advisor for these looking explanation of phrases, or a brief reference resource. the variety of entries is huge and encompasses the hot historical past and economic climate of every nation of the zone in addition to political events, geographical gains, well known participants, foreign agencies and key companies. It offers over six hundred key definitions and provides an outline of the altering political dimensions of Western Europe and its kin with the eu Union.

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On 9 November 1989 the GDR regime agreed to introduce new travel regulations and this policy was announced at a press conference by the East German politician Günter Schabowski. When asked by an Italian journalist when the regulations for ‘permanent emigration’ come into force, Schabowski hesitated and, finding no answer in his brief, replied spontaneously that they did so immediately. The press conference was reported on West German news ‘Tagesthemen’ to which East German citizens had access. On hearing that the borders were open, GDR citizens descended en masse to the border checkpoints which were then opened by guards.

The autonomy of the bank increased in the 1980s and 1990s. It is now independent of the Treasury and has the autonomy to set interest rates. Since the start of stage three of Economic and Monetary Union, on 1 January 1999, the Banca d’Italia has been a member of the European System of Central Banks and the Eurosystem and it implements the decisions of the European Central Bank in Italy. it/ Banco de España The Banco de España, the central bank of Spain, dates back to 1782 as the Banco Nacional de San Carlos.

Aznar later blamed the 11 March 2004 Madrid terrorist bombings on ETA; the PP lost the general election held three days after the bombings as it emerged that al-Qa’ida had been responsible for the attacks. 1m. It is one of the few industrialized regions of Spain with an economy traditionally oriented towards steel, shipbuilding, machine tools and aerospace. The region, reliant on heavy industry, experienced a significant industrial and economic decline following the oil crises of the 1970s. Despite periods of economic growth from the late 1980s, the region suffers an above average rate of unemployment and below average standard of living.

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