Advances in Metallic Biomaterials: Tissues, Materials and by Mitsuo Niinomi, Takayuki Narushima, Masaaki Nakai

By Mitsuo Niinomi, Takayuki Narushima, Masaaki Nakai

This ebook experiences primary advances within the use of metal biomaterials to reconstruct tough tissues and blood vessels. It additionally covers the most recent advances in consultant metal biomaterials, corresponding to stainless steels, Co-Cr alloys, titanium and its alloys, zirconium, tantalum and niobium dependent alloys. moreover, the newest findings on corrosion, cytotoxic and allergic difficulties as a result of metal biomaterials are brought. The ebook bargains a worthy reference resource for researchers, graduate scholars and clinicians operating within the fields of fabrics, surgical procedure, dentistry, and mechanics.

Mitsuo Niinomi, PhD, D.D.Sc., is a Professor on the Institute for fabrics learn, Tohoku college, Japan.

Takayuki Narushima, PhD, is a Professor on the division of fabrics Processing, Tohoku collage, Japan.

Masaaki Nakai, PhD, is an affiliate Professor on the Institute for fabrics examine, Tohoku college, Japan.

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In young individuals, articular cartilage is translucent and bluish white while in older individuals, it is opaque and slightly yellowish probably related to a number of factors, including dehydration of the tissues, increased numbers of cross-linkages in the collagen, and the accumulation of lipofuscin pigment in the tissues. 1 Histology of Hyaline Cartilage On microscopic examination, articular cartilage is characterized by its abundant glassy extracellular matrix with isolated, relatively sparse cells located in welldefined spaces.

Femorotibial joint is supported by many ligaments including patellar ligament, medial and lateral 34 T. Sakai Fig. 3 Hinge joint (knee joint) Fig. 4 Pivot joint (proximal radioulnar joint) collateral ligament, popliteal ligament, and anterior and posterior cruciate ligament. Pivot Joint Pivot joint shows only uniaxial rolling motion, such as proximal radioulnar joint surrounded by the annular ligament (Fig. 4). 2 Joint: Normal Anatomy, Function, and Pathological Condition 35 Fig. 5 Ball-and-socket joint (hip joint) Ball-and-Socket Joint Ball-and-socket joint consists of the hemispherical bony head and the concave bony fossa such as hip joint (femoral head and acetabulum) and shoulder joint (humeral head and glenoid cavity).

Yerramshetty JS, Akkus O (2008) The associations between mineral crystallinity and the mechanical properties of human cortical bone. Hansma PK, Turner PJ, Fantner GE (2006) Bone diagnostic instrument. Barak MM, Currey JD, Weiner S, Shahar R (2009) Are tensile and compressive Young’s ­moduli of compact bone different? Wang JH, Jia F, Gilbert TW, Woo SL (2003) Cell orientation determines the alignment of ­cell-­produced collagenous matrix. J Biomech 36:97–102 30 T. Wu L, Lee LA, Niu Z, Ghoshroy S, Wang Q (2011) Visualizing cell extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited by cells cultured on aligned bacteriophage M13 thin films.

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