By Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan
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Additional info for An Introduction to Phonetics
Therefore, consonants can be classified into six different categories on the basis of their manner of articulation: CHAPTER THREE 51 TYPE PHONEME PLOSIVES /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ FRICATIVES /f/ /v/ /θ/ /ð/ /h/ /s/ AFFRICATES /ʧ/ /ʤ/ NASALS /m/ APPROXIMANT /r/ /n/ /ŋ/ /w/ /j/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ LATERAL /l/ However, as the table shows, more than one consonants fall within almost all of these categories. Therefore, other criteria are needed to distinguish one consonant from the other. For example, /p/ and /b/ cannot solely be distinguished on the basis of their manner of articulation.
RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION Why should anyone want to learn the speech sounds for a British accent that is spoken by less than 3% of the population of that country? And, Britain itself provides only a minority of the English speaking peoples of this world. The reason is mainly to do with a legacy of history. Throughout the nineteenth century and throughout the early part of the twentieth century, Received Pronunciation (RP) was very much the language of the ruling and educated classes. A vicious circle was then instituted: those who could afford an education went to the private schools and to university where they learnt RP; the teachers for the next generation were then drawn from this class of people to teach the next generation of the ruling elite.
The term "palate" by itself usually refers to the hard palate. Soft palate/velum is the soft portion of the roof of the mouth, lying behind the hard palate. The velum can also move: if it lowers, it creates an opening that allows air to flow out through the nose; if it stays raised, the opening is blocked, and no air can flow through the nose. Uvula is the small, dangly thing at the back of the soft palate. The uvula vibrates during the /r/ sound in many French dialects. Pharynx is the cavity between the root of the tongue and the walls of the upper throat.