By George M. Bergman

Wealthy in examples and intuitive discussions, this booklet provides basic Algebra utilizing the unifying perspective of different types and functors. beginning with a survey, in non-category-theoretic phrases, of many normal and not-so-familiar structures in algebra (plus from topology for perspective), the reader is guided to an realizing and appreciation of the final recommendations and instruments unifying those structures. subject matters comprise: set conception, lattices, class concept, the formula of common buildings in category-theoretic phrases, sorts of algebras, and adjunctions. numerous routines, from the regimen to the hard, interspersed throughout the textual content, increase the reader's grab of the cloth, express functions of the overall conception to diversified parts of algebra, and sometimes element to extraordinary open questions. Graduate scholars and researchers wishing to realize fluency in vital mathematical buildings will welcome this rigorously influenced e-book.

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**Extra info for An Invitation to General Algebra and Universal Constructions (2nd Edition) (Universitext)**

**Example text**

The equivalence of (a) and (b) is straightforward. Assuming these conditions, let us verify that the 4-tuple F deﬁned in (c) is a group. Take p, q, r ∈ Tred . Then p (q r) and (p q) r are two elements of Tred , call them s and t. For any v : X → |G|, sv = tv by the associative law for G. Hence by (b), s = t, proving that is associative. The other group laws for F are deduced in the same way. Conversely, assuming (c), we claim that for distinct elements s, t ∈ Tred , we can prove, as required for (b), that the equation “ s = t ” is not an identity by getting a counterexample to that equation in this very group F.

As usual, this induces an evaluation map s → sv taking the set T of terms in X into |G|. Now consider any ±1 ±1 s = x±1 n (. . (x2 x1 ) . . ) ∈ Tred . It is easy to verify by induction on n that the permutation sv ∈ |G| takes our “base” symbol a ∈ A to the symbol ±1 x±1 n . . x1 a (or if s = e, to a itself). 3. 6. F = (Tred , , (−) , e) is a group; in fact, letting u denote the inclusion X → Tred , the pair (F, u) is a free group on X. Using parenthesis-free notation for products, and identifying each element of X with its image in F, this says that every element of the free group on X can be written uniquely as e, or ±1 ±1 x±1 n .

This may be seen from the fact that for any s ∈ T, sG (a, b, c) = (sG1 (α1 , β1 , γ1 ), sG2 (α2 , β2 , γ2 )), as is easily veriﬁed by induction. More generally, if we take an arbitrary family of groups (Gi )i∈I , and in each Gi three elements αi , βi , γi , then in the product group G = Gi , we can deﬁne the elements a = (αi )i∈I , b = (βi )i∈I , c = (γi )i∈I , and the relations that these satisfy will be just those relations satisﬁed simultaneously by our 3-tuples in all of these groups. This suggests that by using a large enough such family, we could arrive at a group with three elements a, b, c which satisfy a smallest possible set of relations.