By K. Binder, D. Stauffer (auth.), Professor Dr. Kurt Binder (eds.)

Bargains with the pc simulation of advanced actual sys- tems encounteredin condensed-matter physics and statistical mechanics in addition to in comparable fields comparable to metallurgy, polymer research,lattice gauge conception and quantummechanics.

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**Example text**

18-21) are true not only for the subsystem blocks considered above, but also for finite blocks of size Ld with periodic, free or any other boundary conditions . Note, however, that each boundary condition in finite-size scaling represents a separate "universal i ty . , on the scale L/E,,,,"l boundary effects do not yet cancel out. Of course, the exponents ß,v entering here are the bulk exponents of the infinite system and thus the same for all boundary conditions . 17-21) one recognizes several possibilities to apply finite-size scaling theory to study critical properties.

10) i s not quantitati vely accurate for s""O. g . , H. E. St an1ey : An I n t r oduc t ion to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena (University Pr ess , Oxford 1971) D. Stauffer, M. Ferer, M. Wortis: Phys . Rev. Lett . P . R. dos Santos, L. Sneddon : Phys. Rev. 46 K. P. Landau : Phys . Rev . 47 N. E. Fisher : Phys. Rev. L . Cardy, P. Nightinga1e: Phys . Rev . B27, 4256 (1983) Y. Irnry : Phys. Rev. 48 K. Binder: Z. Phys. -K. Ma : J. Stat. Phys. 26, 221 (1981); H. Meirovitch: J. Stat. Phys . 49b O.

I ii) The appropriate choice o f the nwnbe~s "o:" of eonfi gurations used to equi l ibra te and t o avera ge depends on a j udgement of what the e ~aete~stie t imes of a p~ob l ~~ ~e . Aga in l arg e charac te r i sti c t imes occur at phase transit i ons : cri t ical slowing down of fluctuat i ons occurs at se cond-orde r trans iti ons whi le metas ta bil i ty may occur at f i rs t - order t r ansitions. Often i t i s not even possibl e to ma ke the si mu la t ion run lang enough to see the meta s t able st ate actuall y decayi ng t o t he stable one (which is r eac hed by a different choi ce of i nit i al condi t i ons , for i nstance).